Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a mechanical type non-conventional machining process. USM is used to fabricate macro and micro-features such as blind and through holes and channels used in automobiles, microfluidics devices, bio-MEMS, micro-electronics applications. It has the capability to machine both the electrically conductive and non-conductive hard and brittle materials such as glass, ceramics, quartz, zirconia and silicon etc..
Electric Discharge Machine
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is an advanced machining process. This process is primarily used to machine conductive materials irrespective of their hardness, into complex shapes with high precision. In EDM, material removal takes place due to erosion caused by a series of discrete discharges between the tool electrode and the workpiece. Both the electrodes are submerged in the dielectric medium such as hydrocarbon oil or deionized water. Commercially available EDM is also known as conventional EDM uses hydrocarbon oil as dielectric medium. Dry EDM and Near-dry electric discharge machining (EDM) are the process variant of EDM. Dry EDM uses gas as a dielectric medium and Near-dry EDM uses two-phase flow of liquid and gas as a dielectric medium.
Electrochemical Discharge Machine
Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is a non-conventional hybrid micro machining process. It utilizes the combined action of two non-conventional machining processes such as EDM (electric discharge machining) and ECM (electro chemical machining) to remove the material from work surface. The basic motive to develop this facility was to fabricate micro features for micro fluidic and MEMS applications. Moreover, the developed ECDM facility is capable to machine any kind of materials irrespective of their electrical conductivity, reflectivity and mechanical strength. Till date, this facility has been successfully utilized to machine micro holes, micro-channels, micro grooves and micro slits on several materials (such as borosilicate glass, soda lime glass, zirconia, metal matrix composites and polymer composites).
Pressurized Multi-phase Flow Electrochemical Discharge Machine
Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) has been proved their capabilities for fabrication of micro features on variety of the materials, particularly non-conductive materials. However, fabrication of high aspect ratio micro features still a big challenge for ECDM process owing to insufficient wetting of tool tip and flushing of unwanted products like sludge, molten salt and machined debris, at higher depth. The fabrication of high aspect ratio micro features has been done by developing a new variant of the ECDM process, named Pressurized Multiphase Flow–Electrochemical Discharge Machining (PMF-ECDM). This developed process has a unique facility of providing injection of fresh electrolyte and compressed air into the machining zone through tube electrode.