Credits : 4
Contact Hours : Lecture : 3 Tutorial : 1 Practical : 0
Definition, importance, practical applications of hydrology; global water availability, India's water availability, hydrologic cycles; definition, forms and types of precipitation, measurement of rain fall using rain gauges, selection of rain gauge stations, consistency of rainfall data, computation of mean rainfall, estimation of missing rainfall data, presentation of precipitation data; Losses from evaporation, definition, process, factors and measurement, estimation using empirical formulae; infiltration, factors affecting infiltration capacity, measurement, Harton's infiltration equation, infiltration indices, runoffs, concept of catchments, water budget, components, factors affecting runoff, rainfall-runoff relationship using simple regression analysis, agricultural practices to minimize impacts of runoffs carrying chemicals and pesticides on river ecology; Hydrographs, definition, components and its derivation from simple storm hydrographs, base flow separation, S-curve and its uses, stream flow and its stages, discharge measurement by area-velocity and slope area methods, simple stage discharge relation; Sediment yield and its determination in reservoir/lake, reservoir sediment control, water wealth, river basins and their potential, importance of water resources projects in India, need of minimum ecological flow in rivers, its regulations in India and other countries, small scale and small tank harvesting, urban rainwater harvesting, methods of ground water recharge; Types of pollutants, modeling approach, molecular diffusion in a stagnant fluid, molecular diffusion equation and its classical solutions advection-diffusion equation, its classical solutions and its depth and cross-section averaging, shear flow dispersion, Taylor’s analysis of turbulent shear flow; Mechanisms of vertical mixing from steady transverse line, steady and unsteady point sources, statistical analysis of water quality, mechanisms of transverse mixing, constant-coefficient and two-dimensional numerical mixing models, cumulative discharge method for transverse dispersion, transverse mixing from a diffuser of finite length; Mechanism of longitudinal dispersion, Fickian and alternative models, estimation of mixing length, analytical and numerical solutions of longitudinal dispersion equation, estimation of longitudinal dispersion coefficients, non-Fickian behavior of dispersion process, field measurements of mixing in river and lakes;
Suggested Books :
i. Subramanya, K., “Engineering Hydrology”, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill.
ii. Raghunath, H.M., “Hydrology”, Wiley Eastern Publication.
iii. Sharma, R.K. et al, “Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering”, Oxford and IBM.
iv. Rutherford, J.C., “River Mixing”, 1st edition, John Wiley and Sons.
v. Fischer, H.B., et al, “Mixing in Inland and Coastal Waters”, Academic Press.
vi. Martin, L.M. and McCurchen, S.C., “Hydrodynamics and Transport for Water Quality Modelling”, Levis Publishers.