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Chakrapani Govind J
Govind J Chakrapani Professor gjcurfes[at] 91-1332-285080
Areas of Interest
  • Water and Land Environmental Earth Science, Surface and Groundwater Hydrogeology, Organic Geochemistry, Chemical Sedimentology
Professional Background
19911993Research ScientistUniversity of Delaware, USA
19931996CSIR Pool OfficerJNU New Delhi-IIT Bombay
19962003Assistant ProfessorUOR-IIT Roorkee
20032008Associate ProfessorIIT Roorkee
20082028ProfessorIIT Roorkee
Honors and Awards
Fellow (FNASc)National Academy of Sciences of India, Allahabad2012
National Mineral (Geosciences) AwardMinistry of Mines, Government of India2005
Educational Details
PhDEnvironmental GeochemistryJawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi1991
M.Phil.Environmental GeosciencesJawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi1988
Research InternEnvironmental BiogeochemistrySmithsonian Environmental Research Centre, Maryland, USA1990
M.Sc.Applied GeologyIIT Bombay, Mumbai1985
B.Sc.Geology Honours, Physics, Chemistry, EnglishBerhampur University1983
I.Sc.Maths, Physics, Chemistry, GeologyBerhampur University1981
H.S.C.Maths, G.Sc., English, Soc. Sci.Board of Secondaray Education, Odisha1979
Administrative Background
20172018DeanNalanda University
20162017Organizing Chairman GATE 2017 & Chairman JAM 2017GATE-JAM 2017
20142014Associate DeanStudents Welfare
20132016MemberSEIAA, MoEF & CC
20082011ChairmanSEAC, MoEF
20152016Adjunct ProfessorIIT Bhubaneswar
20132016Academic MemberISM Dhanbad
20102013Core Expert Member, River Regulation ZonesMoEF
20132016Adjunct ProfessorVIT University, Vellore
20132016Management Board MemberUPES, Dehra Dun
20132016Member of Technical Advisory BoardNIH Roorkee
20102011Chief AdvisorHimalayan Explorer's Club
20062010Deputy Chief AdvisorHimalayan Explorer's Club
20142016MemberInstitute Green Committee
20002004Advisor-Audio VisualInstitute Cultural Council
20122015ChairmanDepartment Research Committee
20002003MemberInstitute Library Committee
20012006MemberInstitute Security Committee
20052010MemberContinuing Education Centre
20112014Member Department Finance Committee
20152017MemberDepartment Research Committee
20112016In-ChargeDepartment Building
PHDs Supervised
TopicScholar NameStatus of PHDRegistration Year
Environmental Geochemistry of Narmada River Basin Harish GuptaA
Paleomonsoon in NW India: An Environmental Magnetic Approach Narendra Kumar MeenaA
Neuro-fuzzy model application to sediment discharge in Narmada River Ms. Nibedita BisoyiA
Temporal and spatial variations on water chemistry of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers of Garhwal HimRavi Kumar SainiA
Determination of dissolution rates of rocks/minerals by laboratory experiments Sri Krishna YadavA
Characterisation of organic matter in sediments of Kumaun Himalayan lakesMs. Preetam ChoudhuryA
Nutrients and heavy metals in Kumaun Himalayan lakesP.PurushothamanA
Sediment Geochemistry of Kallai River, KeralaMs. K.J.ResmyA
Sediment flow modeling in Bhagirathi river using artificial neural networksMs. Nandita singhA
Impact of urbanization on groundwater of Lucknow area, IndiaMs. Anjali SinghA
Scour around spur dikes and bridge piers founded in cohesive sediment mixtures Ajay Singh LodhiA
Characterization of sediments of the Alaknanda River, Garhwal Himalayas, India Ms. Sugandha PanwarA
Sediment flow patterns and water quality in Ramganag River, Ganga Basin, India Mohd. Yawar Ali KhanA
Visits to outside institutions
Institute VisitedPurpose of VisitDate
Smithsoniamn Environmental Research Centre, Edgewater, Maryland, USAResearch Intern1990
University of Delaware, USAResearch Scientist1991
UPS Toulouse, IPG Paris, FranceVisiting Professor1999
IPG Paris, FranceVisiting Professor2001
Ruhr University, Bochum, GermanyVisiting Scientist2004
LMTG-CNRS-UPS Toulouse, FranceVisiting Scientist2005
Stockholm University, SwedenVisiting Scientist2007
Academia Sinica, TaiwanVisiting Scientist2007
UPS Toulouse, FranceVisiting Scientist2008
Tongji University, Shanghai, ChinaVisiting Professor2010
Tongji University, Shanghai, ChinaVisiting Professor2011
Tongji University, Shanghai, ChinaVisiting Professor2012
University of Washington, USAInvited Researcher2012
University of Washington, USAInvited Researcher2014
University of Washington, USAInvited Researcher2015
University of Hanoi, VietnamInvited Talk Meeting2013
Refereed Journal Papers

RESEARCH  PUBLICATIONS (CITATIONS:1766, h-index:22, i-index:34, Google Scholar)

76.        Panwar, S.,Gaur, D. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2017)Total organic carbon transport by the Alaknanda River, Garhwal Himalayas, India. Arabian Jour. Geosci. DOI:10.1007/s12517-017-3003-3, Springer Publ.

75.        Panwar, S., Agarwal, V. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2017) Morphometric and sediment source characterization of the Alaknanda River basin, Headwaters of River Ganga, India, Natural Hazards, DOI 10.1007/s11069-017-2838-y, Springer Publ.

74.        Panwar, S., Mishra, M, and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2017) Orogeny as a controller of climate change and monsoon. In Development of Water Resources in India, Garg, V. et al. (Eds), Water Science and Technology Library 75, DOI 10.1007/978-319-55125-8_27

73.        Khan, Y.A.M, Gani, K.M. and G.J. Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2017) Spatial and temporal variations of physicochemical and heavy metal pollution in Ramganga river-a tributary of River Ganges, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76:1-13, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-017-6547-3, Springer publ.

72.        Khan, Y.A.M, Khan, B and andG.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2016) Assessment of spatial variations in water quality of Garrariver at Shahjahanpur, Gannga Basin, India, Arab. Jour. Geosci. 9(8):1-10, DOI: 10.1007/s12517-016-2551-2, Springer publ.

71.        Panwar, S. G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2016) Seasonal variability of grain size, weathering intensity and provenance of channel sediments in the Alaknanda River Basin, an upstream of Ganga River, India, Environmental Earth Science, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-016-5815-y, Springer publ.

70.        Panwar, S. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2016) Spatial and temporal variability in grain sizes of Alaknanda River, Chapter in Book “Geostatistical and geospatial approaches for the characterization of natural resources in the environment”, 313-319 pp, Springer International Publ.

69.        Panwar, S., Khan, Y.A. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2016) Grain size characteristics and provenance determination of sediment and dissolved load of Alaknanda River, Garhwal Himalayas, India. Environmental Earth Science, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-015-4785-9, Springer publ.

68.        Khan, M.Y.A. Daityari, S. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2016) Factors responsible for temporal and spatial variations in water and sediment discharge in Ramganga River, Ganga Basin, India, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(4):1-18 Springer Publ. DOI 10.1007/s12665-015-5148-2

67.        Khan, M.Y.A.,Muzamil, K., and G.J.Chakrapani  (Student Supervisor) (2016) Assessment of surface water quality and its spatial variation: A case study of Ramganga River, India, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9: 28. Springer Publ.DOI:10.1007/s12517-015-2134-7

66.        Khan, M.Y.A., Hasan, F., Panwar, S. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2015) Neural network model for discharge and water level prediction for Ramganga river catchment of Ganga Basin, India, Hydrological Sciences Journal (Taylor & Francis Publ.), 61(11):2084-2095, DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2015.1083650

65.        Frings, P.J., Clymans, W., Fontorbe, G., Gray, W., G.J.Chakrapani, G., Conley, D.J. and Rocha C, D.L. (Research Collaborator) (2015) Silicate weathering in the Ganges alluvial plain. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 427: 136-148, Elsevier Publ.

64.        Singh, Nandita and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2015) ANN modeling of sediment concentration in the dynamic glacial environment of Gangotri in Himalaya, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, DO 10.1007/s10661-015-4672-6, Springer Publ.

63.        Singh, Anjali, S.K.Srivastav, Sudhir Kumar and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2015) A modified DRASTIC (DRASTICA) model for assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in an urbanized environment in Lucknow, India. Environmental Earth Science, 74(7): 5475-5490, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-015-4558-5, Springer-Verlag Publ.

62.        Purushothaman, P.andG.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2014) Phosphorus biogeochemistry in sediments of high altitude lakes, Kumaun Himalayas, India, Arab. Jour. Geosci. DOI 10. 1007/s12517-013-1234-5, Springer Publ.

61.        Mishra, M. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2014) A Grain size model for role of tectonics and climate on sedimentation in Siwaliks in Mohand area, Journal of Geological Society of India, Vol. 84, 105-113, Springer Publ.

60.        Ali, A., Asadollah, M, Reza, M.H., Mahdi, N. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2014) Carbonate diagenesis of the upper Jurassic succession (Oxfordian-Kimmerdgian) in the west of Binalaud-Eastern Albortz (NE Iran), Journal of Geological Society of India, 83 (3), 311-328, Springer Publ.

59.        Panwar, S. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2013) Climate change and its influence on groundwater resources, Current Science, 105 (1): 37-46

58.        Mehto, A. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2013) Spatio-temporal variation in the hydrochemistry of Tawa River, Central India: Effect of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(12): 9789-9802, Springer Publ.

57.        Choudhary, P., J.Routh and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2013)A 100- year record of changes in organic matter characteristics and productivity in Lake Bhimtal in the Kumaon Himalaya, NW India, Journal of Paleolimnology, 49: 129-143, Springer Publ.

56.        Purushothaman, P., and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2012) Trace metals biogeochemistry of Kumaun Himalayan lakes, Uttarakhand, India, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184 (5):2947-2965, Springer Publ.

55.        Purushothaman, P., S.Mishra, A.Das and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2012) Sediment and hydro biogeochemistry of lake Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, India, Environmental Earth Sciences, 65: 775-788, Springer Publ.

54.        Gupta,H., G.J.Chakrapani, K.Selvaraj and S-J Kao (Student Supervisor) (2011) The fluvial geochemistry, contributions of silicate, carbonate and saline-alkaline components to chemical weathering flux and controlling parameters: Narmada River (Deccan Traps), India. GeochimicaetCosmochimicaActa 75:800-824, Elsevier Publ.

53.        Yadav, S.K. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2011) Geochemistry, dissolved elemental flux rates, and dissolution kinetics of lithologies of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers in Himalayas, India, Environmental Earth Sciences, 62: 593-610, Springer Publ.

52.        Das, S.K. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2011)Assessment of metal toxicity in soils and waters from Raniganj coalfield, India, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1618x, 177: 63-71, Springer Publ.

51.        Viswanathan, M. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2010) Laboratory Experiments on River-Estuary Geonanomaterials, Current Science, 99(2): 213-215, Springer Publ.

50         Choudhary, P., J.Routh and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2010) Organic geochemical record of increased productivity in Lake Naukuchiyatal, Kumaun Himalayas, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 60(4): 837-843, Springer-Verlag Publ.

49.        Tripathy, G.R., V.Goswami, S.K.Singh and G.J.Chakrapani (Research Collaborator)(2010) Temporal variations in Sr and 87Sr/86Sr of the Ganga headwaters: Estimates of dissolved Sr flux to the mainstream. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7572, 24: 1159-1171, Wiley Interscience Publ.

48.        Dubey, P., V.Ravikant and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2010) Strontium isotopic compositions in selected hot spring waters in northwestern Himalaya. Himalayan Geology 31 (1): 19-23

47.        G.J. ChakrapaniandR.K.Saini (Student Supervisor) (2009) Influence of monsoon on the variations in water discharge and sediment load in the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers in Himalayas, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 35(6): 545-553, Elsevier Publ.

46.        G.J. Chakrapani,R.K.Saini and S.K.Yadav (Student Supervisor) (2009) Chemical weathering rates in the Alaknanda-Bhagirathi river basins in Himalayas, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences,34: 347-362, Elsevier Publ.

45.        Choudhary,P., J.Routh and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2009) Comparison of bulk organic matter characteristics in three Kumaun Himalayan Lakes, Current Science, 97(4): 372-375, Springer Publ.

44.        Choudhary,P., J.Routh, G.J.Chakrapani and B.Kumar (Student Supervisor) (2009) Biogeochemical records of paleoenvironmental changes in Nainital lake, Kumaun Himalayas, India Journal of Paleolimnology, Springer Publ. 42(4): 571-580

43.        Choudhary,P. J.Routh and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2009) An environmental record of changes in sedimentary organic matter from Lake Sattal in Kumaun Himalayas, India. Science of the Total Environment, 407 (8) : 2783-2795, Elsevier Publ.

42.        Jain, C.K., H.Gupta and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2008) Enrichment and fractionation of heavy metals in bed sediments of river Narmada, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 141(1-3): 35-47, Springer Publ.

41.        Skelton, A. L. Claesson, G.J. Chakrapani, C.Mahanta, J.Routh, M. Morth and P. Khanna (Research Collaborator) (2008) Coupling between seismic activity and groundwater chemistry at the Shillong Plateau, northeastern India. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 165:45-61 BirkhauserVerlag Publ.

40.        Purushothaman, P., A.Soren and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2008) Phosphorus fractionation in Nainital lake sediments. Himalayan Geology, 29(1): 73-79

39.        Saini,R.K., S.Swain, A.Patra, G.J.Khanday, H.Gupta, P.Purushothaman and
G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor) (2008) Water geochemistry of three Himalayan lakes: Dal lake (Jammu & Kashmir), Khajjiar (Himachal Pradesh) and Nainital Lake (Uttarakhand). Himalayan Geology, 29(1): 63-72

38.        Yadav, S.K., G.J.Chakrapani and ManojK.Gupta (Student Supervisor) (2008) An experimental study on dissolution kinetics of calcite, dolomite, leucogranite and gneiss in buffer solutions at temperatures 250C and 50C, Env.Geol.53(8):1683-94, Springer Publ.

37.        Purushothaman, P., and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2007) Heavy metals fractionation in Ganga river sediments Environ Monit and Assess 132 :475-489, Springer Publ.

36.        Subudhi,R.K., G.J.ChakrapaniandR.K.Saini (Student Supervisor) (2007)Temporal variations in dissolved chemical composition in Ganga river at Rishikesh, India. Jour. Geol.Soc.India 69(6): 1305-131

35.        Gupta, H. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2007) Temporal and spatial variations in water flow and sediment load in the Narmada River. Current Science 92 (5): 679-684    Ind. Acad.Sci.

34.        Patra, A.K., N.Pendkar and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor)(2006) Heavy metals fractionation and mineralogy in sediments of Nainital lake, Kumaun Himalayas. Jour.Geol.Soc.Ind. 68:181-185

33.        Saini, R.K., G.J.ChakrapaniandA.K.Sen (Student Supervisor) (2006) Geochemical studies of groundwater in Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, Jour. Geol. Soc. India 68:50-58

32.        Yadav, S.K. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2006) Dissolution kinetics of rock-water interactions and its implications. Current Science 90(7):932-937,Ind.Acad.Sci.Publ.

31.        G.J. ChakrapaniandJ.Veizer (Research Collaborator) (2006) Source of dissolved sulphate in the Alakananda-Bhagirathi rivers in the Himalayas Current Science 90(4):500-503, Ind.Acad.Sci.Publ.

30.        Maiti,S., N.K.Meena, S.J.Sangode and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2005) Magnetic susceptibility studies of soils in Delhi. Jour. Geol.Soc.Ind.66 :667-672

29.        Chakrapani,G.J. (2005) Osmium and strontium isotopic compositions in Ganga river sediments. In: Hydrological Perspectives for Sustainable Development (Allied Publ.), 990-996 pp

28.        G.J.Chakrapani (2005) Book Review: Himalayan Orogen-Forelend Interaction. Curr. Sci. 89(10): 1765-66, Ind.Acad.Sci.Publ.

27.        Gupta,H. and G.J.Chakrapani(Student Supervisor)(2005) Temporal and spatial variations in water flow and sediment load in Narmada River Basin, India: Natural and man-made factors. Environmental Geology 48:579-589 Springer-Verlag Publ.

26.        G.J. Chakrapani and Jan Veizer (Research Collaborator)(2005) Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition in the upstream Ganga River in Himalayas. Curr.Sci. 89(3):553-556  Ind.Acad. Sci. Publ.

25.        G.J. Chakrapani (2005) Major and trace element geochemistry in upper Ganga river in Himalayas, India, Environmental Geology 48(2):189-201, Springer-Verlag Publ.

24.        Vigier, N., B.Bourdon, E.Lewin, B.Dupre,S.Turner,G.J.Chakrapani, P.vanCalsteren and C.J.Allegre (Research Collaborator) (2005) Mobility of U-series nuclides during basalt weathering: an example from Deccan Traps, India. Chem.Geol. 219(1-4):69-91, Elsevier Sci.Publ.

23.        G.J. Chakrapani, Deepak Dhingra and Prasun Biswas (Student Supervisor) (2005) Chemical weathering by rivers in India. IWRS Journal 25(2):1-9

22.        G.J. Chakrapani (2005) Factors controlling variations in river sediment loads. Current Science 88 (4):569-575 Ind. Acad. Sci. Publ.

21.        Gupta,H. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2004)Variations in daily sediment loads of Narmada river.In:Water Quality-Monitoring, Modeling and Prediction(NIH Publ.) 31-39 pp

20.        Dhingra,D. and G.J.Chakrapani (Student Supervisor) (2004)Estimation of silicate weathering in Upper Ganga river in Himalayas, India. Himalayan Geology 25(2):139-144. WIHG Publ.

19.        G.J. Chakrapani(2003)Linking of major rivers of India–Bane or Boon? Correspondence Jour.Geol.Soc.India Vol. 61.Geol.Soc. Ind. Publ.

18.        G.J. Chakrapani(2002) Chemical studies of water in Kumaun Himalayan lakes.In: Aquatic Ecosystems-Conservation,Restoration and Management(Capital Publ.),147-53 pp

17.        G.J. Chakrapani, J.Gaillardet,B.Dupre and C.J.Allegre (Research Collaborator)(2002) Osmium isotopic composition  in Ganga river sediments Current Science 83(10):1253-1255. Ind. Acad.Sci. Publ.

16.        G.J. Chakrapani (2002) Water and sediment geochemistry of major Kumaun Himalayan lakes Environmental Geology 43:99-107, Springer-Verlag Publ.

15.        Dessert, C., B.Dupre,L.M.Francois,J.Schott,J.Gaillardet, G.J.Chakrapani and S.Bajpai (Research Collabortaor) (2001) Erosion of  Deccan Traps determined by river geochemistry : Impact on the global climate and Sr87/Sr86 ratio of seawater, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 188 : 459-474, Elsevier Publ.

14.        Gibbs,R.J., P.K.Jha and G.J.Chakrapani  (Research Collaborator) (2000) Clay mineralogy of the Hudson river estuary. Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences 22(1):26-30. Blackwell Publ.

13.        G.J. Chakrapani and B.C.Raymahasay (Research Collaborator) (1999) Metal pollution due to mining activities. In: Biogeochemistry of rivers in tropical south and south-east Asia, SCOPE Publ., Hamburg), 255-260 pp.

12.        Sharma,M., G.J.Wasserburg, A.W.Hoffmann and G.J.Chakrapani (Research Collaborator) (1999) Himalayan uplift and osmium isotopes in oceans and rivers. GeochimicaetCosmochimicaActa 63 (23/24) 4005-4012, Pergamon Publ.

11.        G.J. Chakrapani and A.K.Soni (1998) Pollution due to exploitation of mineral resources. In: Environmental Biogeochemistry (SCOPE Publ. Hamburg), 423-432 pp

10.        Sharma,M., G.J.Wasserburg, A.W.Hofmann and G.J.Chakrapani (Research Collaborator) (1998) The osmium isotopic composition of the suspended and dissolved load in the Ganges : Implications for the evolution of the seawater Os EOS 79, F519, American Geophysical Union Publ.

9.         Ahmad,T., P.P.Khanna, G.J.Chakrapani and S.Balakrishnan (Research Collaborator) (1998) Geochemical characteristics of water and sediment of the Indus river, Trans-Himalaya, India: Constraints on weathering and erosion. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 16(2-3) 333-346, Elsevier Sci. Publ.

8.         G.J. Chakrapani and V.Subramanian (Student Research) (1996) Fractionation of heavy metals and phosphorus in suspended sediments of the Yamuna River, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 43: 117-124, Kluwer-Academic Publ.

7.         G.J. Chakrapani, V.Subramanian, R.J.Gibbs and P.K.Jha (Research Collaborator) (1995) Size characteristics and mineralogy of suspended sediments of the Ganges River, India. Environmental Geology 25: 192-196, Springer-Verlag Publ.

6.         Gibbs,R.J. P.K.Jha and G.J.Chakrapani (Research Collaborator) (1994) Sediment particle size in the Hudson estuary. Sedimentology 41: 1063-1068, Blackwell Publ.

5.         G.J. Chakrapani and V.Subramanian (Student Research) (1994) Grain size distribution and mineralogy of suspended sediments of Mahanadi River. Geological Society of India 44: 541-546. Geol. Soc.Ind. Publ.

4.         G.J. Chakrapani and V.Subramanian (Student Research) (1993) Heavy metals distribution and fractionation in sediments of the Mahanadi river basin, India. Environmental Geology 22:80-87, Springer-Verlag Publ.

3.         G.J. Chakrapani and V.Subramanian (Student Research) (1993) Rates of erosion and sedimentation in the Mahanadi river basin, India. Journal of Hydrology 149: 39-48, Elsevier Sci.Publ.

2.         G.J. Chakrapani and V.Subramanian (Student Research) (1990) Factors controlling sediment discharge in the Mahanadi river basin, India. Journal of Hydrology 117: 169-185, Elsevier Sci. Publ.

              1.         G.J. Chakrapani and V.Subramanian (Student Research) (1990) Preliminary studies on the geochemistry of the                   Mahanadi river basin, India. Chemical Geology 81:241-253, Elsevier Sci.Publ.