Instrumentation Biotechnology Lab:
Gel Doc- (Bio rad)
Gel Doc, also known as Gel Documentation System, Gel Image System or Gel Imager, is widely used in molecular biology laboratories for the imaging and documentation of nucleic acid and protein polyacrylamide or agarose gels typically stained with ethidium bromide or other fluorophores such as SYBR Green. Generally, a Gel Doc is composed of an ultraviolet (UV) light transilluminator, a hood to shield external light sources and a camera for image capturing.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
The specimen is illuminated with light of a specific wavelength (or wavelengths) which is absorbed by the fluorophores, causing them to emit light of longer wavelengths (i.e., of a different color than the absorbed light). The illumination light is separated from the much weaker emitted fluorescence through the use of a spectral emission filter. Typical components of a fluorescence microscope are a light source (xenon arc lamp or mercury-vapor lamp), the excitation filter, the dichroic mirror (or dichroic beamsplitter), and the emission filter (see figure below). The filters and the dichroic are chosen to match the spectral excitation and emission characteristics of the fluorophore used to label the specimen. In this manner, the distribution of a single fluorophore (color) is imaged at a time. Multi-color images of several types of fluorophores must be composed by combining several single-color images
Probe Sonicator-(Sonics Vibracell Model No- CV334)
Probe Sonicator is the popular name for an Ultrasonic homogenizer. The Probe Sonicator consists of a Ultrasonic Generator whose energy is channelized into media through a metal horn or probe.
Probe Sonicator can be used to speed dissolution, by breaking intermolecular interactions. In biological applications,Probe Sonicator is used to disrupt or deactivate a biological material. For example Probe Sonicator is often used to disrupt cell membranes and release cellular contents. This process is called sonoporation. Probe Sonicator is also used to fragment molecules of DNA, in which the DNA subjected to brief periods of sonication is sheared into smaller fragments. Probe Sonicator is commonly used in nanotechnology for evenly dispersing nanoparticles in liquids and for breaking down particles to Nano size. Probe Sonicator comes in different capacities of Frequency and Energy.
Major Instruments of Mtech I & II Lab:
Centrifuge- (Beckman Coulter)
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by an electric motor (some older models were spun by hand), that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying a force perpendicular to the axis.A centrifuge is also used to separate the components of blood in blood banks.The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration causes denser substances to separate out along the radial direction (the bottom of the tube).
An autoclave is a device used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents.
Deep Freeze Refrigerator(-20 )- (Haier)
A refrigerator consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump(mechanical, electronic, or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the refrigerator to its external environment so that the inside of the it is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Lower temperatures in a confined volume lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage.
A refrigerator maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator replaced the icebox. For this reason, a refrigerator is sometimes referred to as an icebox.
Laminar Flow Cabinet- (Vaiometra)
A laminar flow cabinet or laminar flow closet or tissue culture hood is a carefully enclosed bench designed to prevent contamination of semiconductor wafers, biological samples, or any particle sensitive device. Air is drawn through a HEPA filter and blown in a very smooth, laminar flow towards the user. The cabinet is usually made of stainless steel with no gaps or joints where spores might collect.
Such hoods exist in both horizontal and vertical configurations, and there are many different types of cabinets with a variety of airflow patterns and acceptable uses.
Laminar flow cabinets may have a UV-C germicidal lamp to sterilize the shell and contents when not in use. (It is important to switch this light off during use, as it will quickly give any exposed skin sunburn and may cause cataracts.)
UV- Visible Spectroscopy-(Hitachi)
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared (NIR)) ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules undergo electronic transitions.
Molecules containing π-electrons or non-bonding electrons (n-electrons) can absorb the energy in the form of ultraviolet or visible light to excite these electrons to higher anti-bonding molecular orbitals. The more easily excited the electrons (i.e. lower energy gap between the HOMO and the LUMO), the longer the wavelength of light it can absorb.
Electrospinning Unit – (ESPIN – NANOPECO)
Electrospinning allows many different synthetic and natural polymers as well as polymer blends to be processed to nanofibers, which are up to 10,000 times thinner than a human hair. By varying the processing parameters the fiber thickness can be varied between 10 nm and a few micrometers.
A polymer solution is injected at a constant feed rate though a nozzle or needle which is charged to a high voltage, typically 10 to 30 kV. The applied voltage induces a charge on the surface of the liquid droplet and when this is sufficiently high, the hemispherical surface of the fluid elongates and a Taylor cone is established. On increasing the applied voltage further, a charged liquid jet is ejected from the Taylor cone and attracted to the earthed collector, which is positioned at a fixed distance from the needle. During this process the solvent evaporates from the polymer solution, leaving dry polymer fibres on the collector.
Ice maker-(BIOSYNC INSTRUMENT SERVICES):
This apparatus is employed for instant production of ice flakes required for various experimental procedures. It works on the simple principle of compressors mediated cooling.
Rotary Evaporators Yamato (Model No:RE301)
The rotary evaporator is the most common method adapted for an efficient, fast and gentle means of separating liquids. The rotating flask generates an effective heat transfer for fast evaporation preventing a local overheating whilst leading to a smooth mixing of the content.
It is a device designed to impart an orbital motion to flasks, tubes, etc. with the purpose of mixing their contents and facilitating the transfer of gases from the gaseous to the liquid phase. It is useful especially for growing cultures of cells.